Papers in Linguistics, 10, 1-22. China ranking lowest in the individualism factor is mainly attributed to the high level of a collective society by the communist rule. Despite the ability of both genders to use vocal variation, men are much more selective about when they vary their voices and female language contains greater imagery. The words are considered only part of, and are inseparable from, the total communication context, which includes the personal characters of the parties involved and the nature of the interpersonal relationships between them. In private, formal recognition of space is the norm, particularly for the elderly who are treated with reverence. From this perspective, the key to understanding culture is to know the rules and scripts that guide action—how do people make sense of their communication environment, and how does this influence patterned action? When Chinese talk about brothers or sisters they often mean cousins, so a few more questions about exact relationships may be necessary to discern who is who.
Needless to say, understanding the fundamental patterns of communication styles as well as the underlying systems of thought that give rise to them will help to reduce cultural barriers that hinder intercultural relationships and collaborations. Someone who won't face you directly shows his or her claim or problem to be invalid; the assumption is that anyone with a legitimate problem would come to the other person directly. Language, communication, and culture: Current directions. But still feel free to express your gratitude, and be as polite as you see fit to be. Factors Affecting The Way Chinese Communicate The Chinese culture has complex communication patterns. Because direct and indirect communication was measured using dichotomous variables, a logistic regression analysis was warranted. The Indian handshake is very light and fleeting, to avoid imposing energy on the other person or receiving energy one does not want.
Merkin's current research interests intercultural communication, sexual harassment in the workplace, and social interaction processes such as impression management and facework communication. This gives others the chance to refuse a request without directly saying no, or to evade a question that is felt to be too personal or simply a subject the listener does not want to discuss Darnell, 1988, p. Addressing an Issue or Problem The Chinese are a very practical, pragmatic people, who consider anything is ok that gets them where they want to be and that is socially tolerable. It can be assumed that we also model our patterns of verbal and non-verbal communication after our childhood experiences. Turn taking in dyads is also regulated by non-verbal cues that differ markedly from those of the dominant culture. The degree can be completed in as little as two years, putting students on an accelerated track to the next phase of their careers. The study found that Chinese family communication patterns are more conversation-oriented than conformity-oriented, and the collaborating and accommodating styles are the children's most preferred and the competing style the least preferred.
Culture, Touch Avoidance, and Nonverbal Immediacy Nonverbal immediacy is related to the emotional distance communicated nonverbally between people. Conflicts do not have to be resolved immediately for work to continue. Time: Traditionally, time is seen as cyclical and ever-returning. In Ghana, if a young child looks an adult in the eye, it is considered an act of defiance. This behavior can be interpreted by members of other cultures as coldness-U. Best advice is to try to be diplomatic and tactful where possible, as the Chinese may be offended by Western bluntness in the wrong circumstances. It is just a polite observation that you look different.
Understanding the response is quite important too! Typological Differences China has their way of organizing ideas, connecting facts or even stressing points. Japanese, Koreans, overseas Chinese or other similar-looking people are not referred to as foreigners, interestingly. The diametrically opposite communication patterns undoubtedly pose significant barriers for improving inter-ethnic relations between Israel Jews and Palestinian Arabs. For Buddhists and Taoists, this greater self is the part of us that merges with nature, with the cosmos; it is devoid of individuality. For Westerners, the Chinese appear to be humble and reserved, so much concerned about their image that they tend to avoid in all possibilities the discomfort of being embarrassed or humiliated. Argumentativeness in Korean and American college students. Harmony within oneself and with society at large is highly valued, so getting angry, or appearing to lose self-control, is particularly frowned upon.
For example, Taiwan culture could be separated into Hakka culture, aboriginal culture,and Taiwanese culture. There is an etiquette to gifts and giving and receiving, and to raising glasses to toast, even giving business cards and lighting cigarettes! In addition, women take time to think over a problem and my respond to a query more slowly and less automatically. Journal of Nonverbal Communication, 22, 59-75. Human Communication Research, 22, 510-543. Two generations their senior may be addressed as grandfather or grandmother. Identity orientation: Japan is usually characterized as a group-oriented collateral society, similar to Latin American or Arab cultures.
Consider: the West values the individual, whereas Chinese consider their place in society first. Volume: In business conversation, a quiet and somewhat formal way of speaking is appropriate for the Spanish speaker. For example, we often see aboriginals as like drinking, and see Hakka people as thrifty. If a stranger accommodates our communication style and we perceive the intention to be positive, it will reduce our uncertainty and anxiety and promote greater rapport between the two parties. Despite a nationwide English program of some years standing, the levels of spoken English in China are still widely variable and this will often depend on where you are, obviously with more English spoken in larger, more cosmopolitan cities. Such stylistic differences are also shared by some ethnic groups in the United States. When in China — Do as the Chinese Do! Human Communication Research, 27, 382-408.
These occupations required relatively little cooperation with others. Awareness of power displays is important. Turn taking and pause time: In formal group speaking situations, turns are usually taken by everyone present, and no one else speaks until the previous speaker is completely through and a few moments of silence have ensued Darnell, 1988, p. An ethnic, non-verbal form of communication may include the style of dress. This is why it is so important to recognize the differences in non-verbal communication between cultures. It is assumed that everyone should get married by about their mid-twenties and everyone who gets married should have children. The Geography of Thought The cognitive approach views culture as a complex knowledge system.
High-context cultures include Eastern cultures such as Korea, where people have widespread networks with family, friends, and organizations. Moreover, most of the American immigrants are from Europe,especially the leading class, so Europe has a very profound effect on America. To behave otherwise would be disrespectful. In high-context cultures, messages are indirect and are delivered in an abstract implicit manner because the message is actually highly dependent on the context. Many cultures also frown upon showing the bottom of the shoe, something that is considered dirty.
The verbal channel is the dominant source of information for transmitting elaborated codes; context is not critical in understanding elaborated codes. The voice can range from a very quiet, deep sound to very loud and high-pitched, and all may be considered appropriate. Note that it is almost unheard of for someone with non-Chinese features to have Chinese citizenship, and apart from in tourist hotspots, it is still relatively unusual to see non-oriental features in China. The use of and attitude toward silence can also be considered a type of paralanguage. Verbal messages are also important, but the emphasis is not placed on the technique of constructing and delivering clear verbal messages for maximum persuasiveness. Read on to understand… Chinese Communication — Culture Shock! The city-state also made it possible for intellectual rebels to leave a location and go to another one, maintaining the condition of a relatively free inquiry.