In a doubtful cause the judge should be made favorable; in an obscure, docile; in a base, attentive. As the confidence observable in some orators may easily pass for arrogance, there are certain ways of behavior which, tho common, will please, and therefore ought not to be neglected, to prevent their being used by the opposing side: these are wishing, warding off suspicion, supplicating, and making a show of trouble and anxiety. On those terms only can the minds of the auditors be made responsive and the cause that the speaker has at heart be won. A will can take many forms. It is indeed difficult to find a medium in this respect, but the orator may so temper his manner as to speak with justness, and not with too great a show of art.
It is of no significance to instruct them; they must be pleased. Some add shameful, as a sixth kind, which others include in base or extraordinary. Your exordium was so singularly clear, that I did not understand you before. The exordium clause may also include an identification of certain relatives of the person who passed away and a list of the beneficiaries of the will. . The syllogism takes the form of a America consists of a promise of freedom, b the Negro in America still is not free, therefore, c America has defaulted on its promise. In the latter case, too, some seasonable pleasantry, or anything witty to freshen the mind will have a good effect.
The proprietors have combined the capital and labor hinted at in my exordium. So far, since the exordium, its course has been strictly narrative. This is a feeble article of faith to begin with, but it helps to push my pen through this exordium and what now follows. Then his mind is to be roused and agitated by hope, fear, remonstrance, entreaty, and even by flattery, if it is thought that will be of any use. What a plight I am in today! An orator must likewise be exceedingly careful to keep himself from being suspected, particularly in that regard; therefore, not the least show of study should be made, because all his art will seem exerted against the judge, and not to show this is the greatest perfection of art.
In the very first words of my speech, I am afraid that I am going to say something unbecoming to a speaker, and that I shall be obliged to neglect the first and most important duty of an orator. By its easy, natural turn, it enhances the reputation of genius. Some writers have prescribed four points as laws for all exordiums, -- which is ridiculous. As Cicero says of himself, he is not unaware that some will find it strange that he, who for so many years had defended such a number of people, and had given no offense to anyone, should undertake to accuse Verres. It is the practice of some speakers, after having put forth a most elaborately finished exordium, to make such a to what follows, that they seem solely intent upon drawing attention to themselves. Since many individuals have the same or similar names, it is always a good idea to include middle names or initials whenever known. First comes an introduction, or exordium, designed to secure a favorable hearing.
It will not be amiss, likewise, to remove any seeming obstruction. Afterward he shows that if, on the one hand, he accuses Verres, still, on the other, he defends the allies of the Roman people. As nothing else gives so great a sanction to the authority of the speaker as to be free from all suspicion of avarice, hatred, and ambition, so, also, there is a sort of tacit recommendation of ourselves if we profess our weak state and inability for contending with the superior genius and talents of the advocate of the other side. General Grosvenor commences with an exordium eloquent in succinctness and noble in generosity. This rule has been recommended by all authors, and undoubtedly with good reason, but sometimes is altered by circumstances, because in certain causes the judges themselves require studied discourses, and fancy themselves thought mean of unless accuracy appears in thought and expression.
Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. But now orators call exordium anything with which they begin, and consider it of advantage to make the beginning with some brilliant thought. To be so imprudent as to attack judges themselves, not openly, but in any indirect manner, would be most unwise. So far, since the exordium, its course has been strictly narrative. Thus, in speaking for a person of consequence, we may lay some stress on the judge's own dignity; for one of mean condition, on his justice; for the unhappy, on his mercy; for the injured, on his severity. Such seems to be that of Demosthenes for Ctesiphon, in which he requests the judges to please permit him to reply as he thinks suitable rather than to follow the rules prescribed by the accuser. Identity of the person who has left the will.
In the case of a Last Will and Testament including a Codicil to a Last Will and Testament , the Exordium is one of the most important provisions. The advocate for the other side may likewise furnish sufficient matter for an exordium. Sometimes honorable mention may be made of him, as when we pretend to be in dread of his interest and eloquence in order to make them suspected by the judges, and sometimes by casting odium on him, altho this must be done very seldom. If a long and intricate narration must follow, the judge ought naturally to be prepared for it. But nothing else will so well suit an exordium as modesty in the countenance, voice, thoughts, and composition, so that even in an uncontrovertible kind of cause, too great confidence ought not to display itself. From what has been said, it appears that different causes require to be governed by different rules; and five kinds of causes are generally specified, which are said to be, either honest, base, doubtful, extraordinary, or obscure.
By the time I had finished this exordium, Melons had disappeared, as I fully expected. An honest cause is sufficient of itself to procure favor. Your exordium was so singularly clear, that I did not understand you before. An exordium clause is also commonly included as part of a living will or trust. Simple causes admit of a shorter exordium; the complex, doubtful, and odious, require a longer exordium. But even Melville might have blenched at Browning's final exordium.
It is the cause itself, therefore, that must teach us to find and improve these circumstances; and, in like manner, with a circumstance that may make against us the cause will inform us how it may either be made entirely void, or at least invalidated. An ill-pronounced exordium may well be compared to a visage full of scars, and certainly he must be a bad pilot who puts his ship in danger of sinking, as he is going out of port. If necessity requires it, I can not say that it is the business of the art of oratory to give directions in the matter, any more than to lodge an appeal, tho that, too, is often of service, or to cite the judge in justice before he passes sentence, for to threaten, denounce, or indict may be done by any one else as well as the orator. To persons are applicable not only the pledges above mentioned, but affinities, friendships, sometimes cities and whole countries are also likely to suffer by the person's misfortunes. Herein, therefore, it will be better and more suitable for an advocate to act than for the person himself; because when pleading for another he can praise without the imputation of arrogance, and sometimes can even reprove with advantage. It must be remembered, however, that nowhere is less allowance made than here for failing in memory or appearing destitute of the power of articulating many words together.
Fear, too, sometimes must be removed, as Cicero, in his defense of Milo, endeavors to assure the judges that Pompey's army, drawn up about the Forum, is for their protection; and sometimes there will be an occasion to intimidate them, as the same orator does in one of his pleadings against Verres. Stubb's exordium to his crew is given here at large, because he had rather a peculiar way of talking to them in general, and especially in inculcating the religion of rowing. In the first the judges are requested openly to give their good will and attention; but as this can not take place in the base kind of cause, the insinuation must steal in upon their minds, especially when the cause does not seem to appear with a sufficiently honest aspect, either because the thing itself is wicked, or is a measure not approved by the public. The exordium she had so carefully prepared during her walk was eluding her. They are sufficiently distinguished without this discrimination. The second, by giving hopes of being brief, and by having recourse to the means prescribed for making the judge attentive.