It is simply picking up, moving, and lying down of materials through manufacture. The materials management department shall then perform as per the use of the ranges of material and produce variety of components and hence, ensure the delivery of such material. It is highly pointed out that the cost material handling involves 40% to 50% of total production cost. Material handling generally costs between 20 to 35% of the cost of the product, with certain exceptions. The main objective of the efficient materials handling is to decrease the costs.
In the table below, principles of materials handling are given, and against each of them activities necessary for implementing the principle are indicated. These are the main sources of good customer service. Therefore main objective of materials handling engineer is to reduce product cost the one overall goal. Rate of demand varies between steps in the manufacturing process. Economic or Cost Factors to be Considered: i Initial cost of the equipment required. From the time, the input material or raw materials enter the industrial unit and go out of the unit in the form of finished products, these are handled at all stages in between, no matter, on the shop floor or in the stores.
Materials handling is the science and art both involving the moving, packing and storing of substance in any form, and includes the preparation, placing and positioning the material to facilitate their movement or storage. Determine the handling cost of the items being handled by the present system. Materials handling engineer must have basic criteria for selecting a handling system of adequate monetary pay back, if all other things are equal. The objective of reduction in cost of production through improved materials handling can be achieved by: a Reducing material handling labour. The new system must be simple to implement so that it is easily acceptable by management as well as by operators.
Alternative systems should then be evaluated from all angles including financial, physical, safety, acceptance by the management and operators, and its effects on working, safety and overall environment. In early days man was physically handling the material, however over a period of years he has started applying mechanical principles like lever, wheel, pulley etc. Inspection of product manufacturing should be as automated as possible to decrease the risk of errors and increase throughput. To keep pace with changing demands and perceptions of consumer, the management needs to maintain continuity in productions and control the flow of materials supply and distributions at different productions facilities and other related departments in an organization. Parts, material and finished products must be moved from store to location. Material movements are much faster and more economical. One example is a conveyor belt that is used to move items from one part of the production process to another.
Modern materials handling technique makes possible a continuous flow of materials and work in process between building and from one floor to another, thus removing restrictions of space and building construction, which was handicapped in the past. Today material handling is rightly considered as one of the most potentially lucrative areas for reduction of costs. But now a day this aspect is being given its due importance and materials handling engineers play a vital role in the industries. Method Oriented Systems : According to the method of handling and method of production, the material handling systems can be: i Manual systems ii Mechanized or automated systems iii Job-shop handling systems, or iv Mass-production handling systems Function Oriented Systems : The systems can be defined according to the material handling function performed as follows: i Transportation systems ii Conveying systems iii Transferring systems iv Elevating systems Selection and Design of Handling System : The selection and design of the material system should be done alongside the development of the layout as each one affects each other. Improved handling system can increase the capacity in the following ways: a By better utilisation of space: Racks or containers that stacks item upon each other making full use of air space should be preferred. Gravity conveyor may be utilized in moving material in a multi-storeyed building or one built on a sloping grade. An effective layout involves least material handling and less costly material handling equipments.
Improvement in Working Conditions : a Safety aspects: Safety of men, material and associated equipment not only prevents loss of money but also enhances the moral of workers. Employ mechanical aids in place of manual labour in order to speed up material movement, increase the efficiency and economy of the system where possible. At this stage research and development no longer make positive contributions in terms of improving the efficiency of the functions of the product or adding new functions to it. Materials sent by vendors must be unloaded, moved through inspections and production operations to stores and finally to the shipping department. It may relate to a product, process or a service. Cost Reduction by: a Decreasing the inventory costs.
Many a times, low or zero inventories lead to stock-outs and halts in production. The focus is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. Purchasing Department: To facilitate in deciding the size of order, packaging, packing and transportation system from suppliers place to the plant. Space Utilisation Principle: Optimum utilisation of building space. Generally, these pieces of equipment deal with the items in loose form, such as conveyor belts or elevators designed to move large quantities of material, or in packaged form, through the use of drums and hoppers. Factors Concerned with Material Handled: i Kinds or nature of materials or parts and components handled: a Large or small. This is so since majority of production time is consumed in handling materials before, during and after the manufacture.
The basic function of material handling is to choose most appropriate materials handling equipment which is safe and can fulfill material handling requirements at the minimum possible overall cost and to choose production machinery and assist in plant layout so as to eliminate, as far as possible, the need of materials handling. This means you can keep your workflow in operation for much longer without worrying about re-stocking. Generally the realization of this principle is layout design dependent. Load the material handling equipment to its maximum safe limit loading. Safety Principle: Safe handling methods and equipment for better working conditions and to avoid unsafe conditions. This will reduce the idling of machine.
Such information for various items moved should include identification, picks point and destination point in order to improve the efficiency of the system. Explosive, flammable, toxic; fragile, etc. Space requirement are greatly influenced by the Material Handling flow pattern. On the basis of these factors an optimum system of material handling can be evolved or at least some factors can be modified to achieve a better material handling system. This means that it is not necessary to buy the latest materials handling equipment, materials handling engineer must put all the elements of the system together to see whether it is profitable for the enterprise. Handling of materials during the entire process of production and distribution, starting from raw material source, going through the factory and distribution network to the ultimate customer and beyond, to waste disposal and recycling.
Economic Factors: The cost of material handling equipment, operating costs, repair and maintenance costs, taxes, insurance and depreciation costs are considered for economic analysis. Definition of Materials Handling 2. This enables high morale and lower workers turnover. As a process, material handling incorporates a wide range of , semi-automated and equipment and systems that support logistics and make the supply chain work. Minimize the movement involved in a production operation.