Generally, if the chapters stand alone and don't cross-reference each other much if at all , your footnote numbering would start over with each chapter. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Content Footnote Although it is not in the main text, a content footnote is relevant and important. Content footnotes are also used to provide further references on a specific topic. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. Providing this information is necessary, but doing so in the main text can disrupt the flow of the writing.
Writing out the full citation first makes it easier to create your footnotes, and ensures that you've included all sources you used. Together, they cited information from. Although published in 2010, Daily's work provides a jumping-off point for research in this area. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1988. Start your list of Endnotes on a new page at the end of your essay. If your instructor prefers that paragraphs not be indented, you must still double-space your lines, but you will need to quadruple-space between paragraphs.
Older journals often use the word ibid, to show that a footnote uses the same source as the previous one, but this has become much rarer. If it is a dash, the number should follow the word before the dash. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Abbreviated footnote: Guion, The Trombone, 78. Olaf Press, 2010 , 115. Make your note as short as possible, preferably no more than a paragraph.
You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. If not, start with the title of the article. Use sequential numbers for footnotes throughout your paper. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on. This function is so useful, that even if you cut and paste, and swap information around, it automatically adjusts the footnotes.
Smith, Example Book New York: Scholastic, 2010. . Faculty may assign Writing Commons for their , , , and courses. Content: Page Bottom If you have a small number of content footnotes, put each at the bottom of the page where the citation appears. Insert a comma between the last word and the closing quotation mark.
If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order: 1. Berel Lang Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979 , 56. In both cases, bibliographies are also required. In others, superscript numbers are preferred. If your footnotes are excessive or unnecessary, readers are likely to become annoyed and may even be distracted from the main points of your writing. Chapter in a book: Garrett P. In subsequent citations, you need only cite a portion of the information.
They are used to offer commentary or cite references on a specific part of text in the body of the paper. For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, where previously op. A numeral is placed in the text to indicate the cited work and again at the bottom of the page in front of the footnote. Each footnote has its own number, even if it is citing the same source as a previous footnote. Social Theory as Science, 2d. Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir.
Footnote numbers must be superscripted. Smith, 2008, The Animal Journal, 77, p. The Panopticon system trains individuals to conform to rules or norms under the condition that they never know when they are being watched. Use footnotes for asides that would ruin the flow of your writing. Date of access Example: Financial Accounting Standards Board. Cite an essay in an anthology. If the website did list an author, list the title of the content.
Each and every source utilized in your paper must appear in the bibliography — no exceptions. In most cases, the material ends with a period. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section. Footnotes Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page on which a citation is made.