In other words, individual differences are variations from the middle or average or typical individual. This meant that slow learners, who had originally been kept at home, now had to attend school. Some have mechanical aptitude, while the others have scholastic, musical or artistic aptitudes. The predictive value of the available measurements of performance in infancy and early childhood for later years has not as yet been demonstrated. Methods of Teaching: Methods of teaching should be chosen on the basis of individual differences. Educational Guidance: Teacher should impart educational guidance to the students while keeping in view their individual differences.
What is meant by ability and capacity? If you require any further information or help, please visit our. On the basis of these average differences between the races, the mental age of a particular individual cannot be calculated since this difference is based on environment. There are two major fields of investigation: i Those concerning the Negro in the United States, and those concerning the North American Indians—both racial colour groups being important in the United States; and ii The national groups, or foreign-born. Every teacher should be somewhat free to formulate his own plan and strategy and adopt different instructional procedures which he finds most suited to different pupils. Physical differences: Shortness or tallness of stature, darkness or fairness of complexion, fatness, thinness, or weakness are various physical individual differences. The constancy of the I.
There is a wide gap in the behaviors of educated and uneducated persons. In a style of thinking called field dependence, for example, individuals perceive patterns as a whole rather than focus on the parts of the pattern separately. Instructional Strategies for Individual Differences In general, there are three different approaches for developing instructional strategies with individual differences among students. Incentives, materials and methods should be adapted to personal needs. The result would be that despite wide differences among pupils in each single trait, the average or combined equipment for learning arithmetic would tend towards equality.
Personality is the outcome of mutual interaction between heredity and environment. The effect of this tendency for strength to be balanced by weakness, and weakness by strength would be to make individuals approach an average. Every teacher should try to have the desired knowledge of the abilities, capacities, interests, attitudes, aptitudes and other personality traits of his pupils and in the light of this knowledge should render individual guidance to children for the maximum utilization of their potentialities. Woodworth made a study on about 300 subjects, consisting of American Indians, Negroes from Philippine Islands, Malay, etc. Role of Individual Differences in Education.
In all instinctive emotional temperamental and volitional tendencies differences are found. Maturity always involves two extremely correlated factors — growth and development. On account of their subnormal intelligence, previous background, lack of proper interest, aptitude and attitude some students have to lag behind in some or other area of achievement. Current researchers are found in a variety of applied and experimental programs, including , , , , , , and programs, in the in particular. Being a good partner in a cooperative learning group, for example, may depend partly on responding spontaneously i. A reflective style is the opposite: the person reacts more slowly and therefore makes fewer errors. Lalit Upadhyaya How are the learning experiences to be provided? Socially intelligent person can easily interact and communicate with others.
Thus, the problem of individual differences can be tackled with multi dimensional tasks. Convergent thinking: Convergent thinking proceeds on the assumption that there is one single best solution to any problem, and also that the solution can be arrived at on the basis of the existing knowledge. However, the following suggestions can be helpful for any teacher — 1. The consequence is that, at any given age, children are far from identical in any particular trait and are even more diversified in the total combinations or pattern of their traits. A test is reliable if it measures a given characteristic consistently.
However, my expectations are that with the more powerful computers now available at reasonable prices we will begin to see an impact on achievement in the near future. Difference in Values Values be given importance by every learner. In this method each member of the group can work in terms of his interest and ability. Proper knowledge of individual personalities: The first step in making provisions for individual differences is not how abilities, capacities, interests, aptitudes and other personality traits of individual pupils. His intelligence tests 1905 helped to find out mental differences in degrees of brightness or dullness, in the levels of development as represented by average capacities of children of various ages. So in educational field differences in interest means you observe some students like a particular subject, , hobby or profession than other. The one that occurs first may soon become a signal for the one that occurs second.
In addition, the specific method seems to be important. After knowing the capability, aptitudes interest, the person can make suitable goals in learning and vocation, which in turn would help him adjust better in the society. So in educational field differences in. A student who lacks field independence, for example, may need explicit help in organizing and analyzing key academic tasks like organizing a lab report in a science class. Morrison of the University of Chicago.
However, the optimal learning conditions and techniques for one student may not facilitate the best performance in another student. It is; therefore, always wise to draw a psychograph of an individual to understand him. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. Method to measure mental maturity the same individual is to be studied for a number of years, which is known as a longitudinal method. Grouping There are four major approaches to grouping: Between-class Ability Grouping often referred to as leveling or tracking , within-class ability grouping, cooperative learning, and individualized instruction.