The central core of the Arusha Declaration was ujamma, Nyerere's take on an egalitarian socialist society based on cooperative agriculture. Other parts of the economy fared poorly as well. Both are users, exploiters, of the abilities and enterprise of other people. Only if they gathered in villages would they be able to benefit from schools, clinics, libraries. It proved, moreover, a failure, ecologically as well as economically.
Its concern is to see that those who sow reap a fair share of what they sow. They routed the Ugandan dictator, who fled into exile in Saudi Arabia. At the school, which was patterned on private schools in Britain, a native elite was to be trained to help administer their homeland under British rule. Tanzania passes from the status of the bigger exporter to that of the bigger African importer of food. Tanganyika became independent on December 9, 1961, with Nyerere as its first prime minister. He died in a London hospital of leukaemia on October 14, 1999. The evaluations of more detached observers were far less enthusiastic.
Being black is becoming a certificate to kill fellow Africans. That new group, the Tanganyika African National Union, was formed on July 7, 1954, a date now celebrated as a national holiday known as Saba Saba, the seventh day of the seventh month. Agriculture has reduced to subsistence levels, transportation networks were fractured, and industry was crippled. But he was never able to reach an agreement with the I. For it is not efficiency of production, nor the amount of wealth in a country, which makes millionaires; it is the uneven distribution of what is produced. He spoke out against what he saw as too much reliance on international trade and the use of gross domestic product as the main measure of Tanzania's success.
It is a nationalization which affects all the sectors. The British administration rejected the demand, but a was begun that established Nyerere as the preeminent nationalist spokesman for his country. Advertisement When he stepped down as President 24 years later, he was only the third modern African leader to relinquish power voluntarily on a continent that by then included 50 independent states. They cannot be created from outside, nor governed from outside. It had merged with Zanzibar in 1964.
Nyerere was often asked whether he had any regrets. Soon after he went away to school, his father paid a lobola, or bride price, to the family of a girl from his home area as a traditional deposit on a future marriage. Years later, after he attended mission schools, he became a Roman Catholic and chose Julius as his baptismal name. An automated bread factory — financed by a Canadian aid project and designed to move the country into processing — was hugely expensive and made little economic sense given Tanzanian markets and factor endowments. Nyerere read it to party leaders. In contrast, Ujamaa would extend the traditional family unit outward towards a project for building the nation. A Rocky Descent Into Economic Gloom Nyerere displayed growing impatience, and in December 1973 he addressed his people on the radio in a scolding tone.
Nyerere is one of the founding fathers of the Organisation of African Unity in 1963. Tanzania had one of the highest literacy rates in Africa, however, and the society was both politically stable and notably free of economic inequalities. Most key sectors of the economy — industrial interests, banks, trading operations, rental-housing stock — were nationalized. A version of this obituary; biography appears in print on October 15, 1999, on Page B00010 of the National edition with the headline: Julius Nyerere of Tanzania Dies; Preached African Socialism to the World. Many homes were burned, and there were a few cases in which people were killed.
Nyerere, the founding father of Tanzania who used East Africa as a pulpit from which to spread his socialist philosophy worldwide, died yesterday in London. And in 1978, after Uganda annexed a 700-square-mile section of Tanzania, Nyerere angrily denounced Idi Amin, the Ugandan despot, as a man who had killed more people than either Ian Smith, the white leader of Rhodesia, or John Vorster of South Africa. A Socialist and Pan-Africanist, was a force for moderation and racial harmony. Scott noted that in contrast to Soviet collectivization, the Tanzanian campaign was not conceived as an all-out war of appropriation. If it is a greater than the country can afford without having to penalize some other section of society, then it is not a fair share. It will be the product of economic and social development. Soon after he went away to school, his father paid a lobola, or bride price, to the family of a girl from his home area as a traditional deposit on a future marriage.
After a debate that ended in his being granted a hearing, he asked for a target date for the independence of Tanganyika. But whatever the accuracy of those calculations, it was also true that farm production was tumbling, with sisal harvesting, for example, dropping to 33,000 tons in 1985 from 250,000 in 1964. In 1948 he asked her to marry him, and when she agreed, the six cows that his father had given to the family of the prospective child bride were returned to the Nyerere family and were passed on to Maria's parents. In actual fact, the guest was likely to ask for the hoe even before his host had to give him one--for he knew what was expected of him, and would have been ashamed to remain idle any longer. His mother, Mugaya, was 15 years old. But this was not an affront to our people; communal ownership of land is traditional in our country-it was the concept of freehold which had been foreign to them.