But as regards this proposition : the square is not a circle, you can affirm that it is innate, for, in considering it, you make a subsumption or application of the principle of contradiction to what the un derstanding itself furnishes as soon as you are conscious of innate thoughts. But if by a spiritual substance you mean an immaterial substance, I admit that I have not proved that there is one in us, and that it cannot be demonstrably proved on my principles. No one that I know of has yet undertaken to give us an exact catalogue of these principles. Other considerations concerning our knowledge. Let them take which side they please, they will clearly see, he says, that it is contradicted by indubitable facts and by continual expe rience. Through the French translation Leibnitz first gained real access to Locke s work.
It is frequent in the writings of Van Helmont, who explains it as a material pre-existence of the human or animal form in posse. The aim of the clever class who have contended against innate truths has been to prevent men from handing round their prejudices and seeking to cover their idleness beneath this fair name. Now this action or this mode cannot be the object of the idea of a thing subsisting by itself, and consequently this mode needs a support, a subject, in which it may inhere, and the idea of this support forms what we, call substance. The assumption of these ideas slumbering in the mind, these innate jdeas angebornen Ideen; idees innees , Leibnitz regards as necessary in order to understand the nature of the mind. This statement will explain the references in certain notes, for example, page 101, note 1, page 154, note 1 cf.
This revision was protracted until the year 1705, as appears from a writing which has no signature. It is proper, however, to accommodate yourself to their taste if you wish to write in their language ; and, in case you should decide to print your work, I believe you will do well to retouch it with a little more severity. There is no adequate index to Leibnitz s works, and none whatever exclusively devoted to the New Essays. Of the reality of our knowledge. It is indeed certain that sometimes interest assists greatly in this sort of thing, yet no one could affirm that it could captivate and lead astray whole societies, so that they all, none excepted, should affirm plain and deliberate falsehoods. Certainly the sketch of Locke s work originated with him. It is true that we do not come upon thoughts in these most abstract matters, without external sensations, but in the case of these necessary truths, such sensations serve more as a reminder than as a proof ; which proof must come simply and solely from internal grounds, as those do not sufficiently understand who deal little in demonstration proper.
Thus there were perceptions of which we were not conscious at once, con sciousness arising in this case only from the warning after some interval, however small it may be. I admit that there are an infinite number of persons who have never made a statement of them. Duncan of Yale University, entitled The Philosophical Works of Leibnitz, New Haven, 1890, have been consulted. The question which he discusses with the celebrated Prelate who attacked him, is, whether matter can think, and as it is an important point even for the present work, I cannot refrain from entering upon it a little and from taking note of their controversy. It is true that the constraint, which another s discourse, whose thread must be followed, gives in making remarks, has prevented me from thinking to secure the charms of which the dialogue is sus ceptible ; but I hope the matter will make amends for the defects of the style. Kaestner, Professenr en Mathematiques a Gottingen. Although he published comparatively little during his lifetime, Leibniz left an enormous mass of unpublished papers, drafts of works, and notes on topics of interest.
From this proceeds the concept of the finite through limitation. If, however, this light has the witness or proof of neither of these rules, we cannot consider it as a revelation ; nay more, as a truth. And to this cause can perhaps with convenience and reason be ascribed the greater part of those sympathies and antipathies which one finds among men, and which work as strongly and produce as regular effects, as if they were natural, which fact then makes them to be called so, although at first view they had no other origin than the chance connection of two ideas, which the strength of a first impres sion, or of an excessively great compliance, so firmly united, that they always thereafter remain together in the mind of the man, as though only a single idea. Extended com mentary was impossible within the necessary limits of the volume, and accordingly was not included in the plan. I find in it, as well as in the preceding books, an infinite number of beauti- sans fin. And, even if the first instruction therein should be attributed to revelation, the readiness which men have always shown to receive this doctrine comes from the nature of their souls.
I find the true principles of things in the Unities of Substance, which this system introduces, and in their harmony pre-established by the primitive Substance. This proving to be the truth in acquired knowledge, nothing prevents its being also true in the case of that which is innate. This statement will explain the references in certain notes, for example, page 101, note 1, page 154, note 1 cf. Locke, Amsterdam, 1742, 1 vol. فهنا وجدت فكره الشمولى المتوسط الذى لا يعترف بعامل واحد لأى ظاهرة ولا يتطرف فى إنحيازاته وإعتقاداته وإنما يشمل جميع العوامل ويستطيع أن يحدد نسبة تأثير كل منها على موضوع دراسته عن طريق براعته التحليلية للمسائل رغم طول الفترة التى إمتدت خلالها قرائتى لهذا الكتاب ورغم كل الحرص والتأنى الذى بذلته أثناء قراءته إلا أنى أجد صعوبة بالغة الآن فى التعبير عن محتواه وجودته. For I have found that these things had not been well under stood. As for the ori gin of ideas, I believe, with this author and a multitude of clever persons, that there are no innate ideas nor innate prin ciples.
I do not well see how this : what is the same thing is not different, is the origin of the principle of contradiction, and easier ; for it appears to me that you give yourself more freedom in advancing that A is not B than in saying that A is not non-A. The first, which declares the impenetrability of bodies, needs proof. Habet anima in se perceptiones et appetitus, iisque natura ejus continetur, he writes to Bierling, Hanoverse 12. Nevertheless, questions of this kind appear to me, as well as to Mr. But if men can be ignorant of or call in question that which is innate, it is in vain for you to speak to us of in nate principles, and to claim to show us their necessity ; very far from their being able to serve as our instructors in the truth and certitude of things, as is maintained, we shall find our selves, with these principles, in the same state of uncertainty as if they were not in us.
Experience already favors me, and you have only to consult the book of the distinguished Mr. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts. I admit the difference which he puts with much reason be tween matter and space ; but as for the vacuum, many clever people have believed in it. К чести Локка, Лейбниц не встретил понимания. It seems also that we differ further in regard to matter, in that the author thinks that a vacuum is necessary to motion, because he thinks that the minute parts of matter are rigid.