Subsidiary alliance or protectorate: It was a political device introduced by Wellesley to placate the Indian rulers. Both Sindhia and Bhonsle became subsidiary allies of the Company. His timely arrival decided the fortune of the day. Wellesley lived together for many years with , an actress at the. The reduced Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the descendants of the original rajas from whom Haidar Ali had seized power. The French force at Hyderabad was, moreover, the nucleus of the power which France was endeavouring to establish in the Deccan.
The raja of Nagpore had maintained a friendly disposition towards the Company, and Mr. At the same time, he called on the Nizam and the Peshwa, the signatories of the treaty of Seringapatam, to furnish their quota of troops in accordance with the 12th article. Lord Wellesley made is an important part of his imperialistic designs. In the south, Tippoo was brooding over his misfortunes and thirsting for an opportunity of gratifying his hostility to the English — the ruling passion of his life. Bath: Adams and Dart, 1970. He returned only to sign a treaty on terms similar to those on which peace had been made with the other belligerents.
At the same time, some observations, which appeared to the Governor-General particularly inopportune, were conveyed to him upon the increase of his military expenditure and the diversion of funds on which the Company relied for their trade. In connection with this college, he established the governor-general's office, to which civilians who had shown talent at the college were transferred, in order that they might learn something of the highest statesmanship in the immediate service of their chief. Sindia, who was supreme at Poona, had likewise obtained possession of the person of the emperor at Delhi, and was strengthened by all the influence still connected with the Mogul throne. His overbearing and excessive vanity caused irritation to his own people around him. Under the leadership of the two very able generals who led the English armies, and who were also invested with full diplomatic authority, the war which now began was brilliantly successful, and its objects were completely fulfilled.
The assignment of so prodigious a sum as prize money could not have failed to demoralize the army, but it was fortunately found not to exceed a tenth of this amount. The The residency at Lucknow Peshwa was escorted back to Poona by a British force under General Arthur Wellesley; and it was signified to the contending Maratha chiefs that their central government had been taken under British protection. Proposal to the Peshwa, 1798 The proposal of a similar alliance was likewise made to the Peshwa, Bajee Rao. It created jealousy in the native powers against the company: The plan of commending subsidiary for territorial revenue had been disapproved by the court of Directors because it created jealousy in the native power against the company. Sir Alured Clarke, the Commander-in-chief, was to be left in Bengal to watch the movements of Zemaun Shah, who had already crossed the Indus and reached Lahore. Till then, the British had followed the policy of consolidating their gains and resources in India and making territorial gains only when this could be done safely without antagonising the major Indian powers. All the same, it had resulted in the East India Company becoming the paramount power in India.
His subsidiary troops were encamped at the capitals of the four great Indian powers which had been his political rivals, at Mysore, Haidarabad, Luck-now, and Poona; all disputes among these states were to be submitted to his arbitration; and the interference of all other European nations was to be rigidly excluded. If the Indian ruler fails to make required payments, a part of his territory would be taken away as penalty. The combined armies of Scindia and Peshwa were defeated by the Holkar. When Shore left India in 1798 Sir Alfred Clarke, as senior member of council, became acting Governor General. To Wellesley the British paramountcy with a sort of federal set-up in India was dearer to him than anything else, and he had begun to give shape to his supreme task of acquiring more lands without antagonizing powerful Indian rulers. These representations, however, instead of deterring him from his purpose, only served to demonstrate more clearly the imperative necessity of extricating the affairs of the Company from this perilous position.
General Baird, a gallant and distinguished officer, who had been for four years confined in irons in a dungeon in Seringapatam, was very appropriately selected to lead the assault. On the voyage outwards, he formed the design of annihilating French influence in the. The Court of Directors, moreover, anxious to manifest their sense of the merits of Lord Wellesley, offered him a donation of ten lacs of rupees from the proceeds of the captured grain, which appertained to the state, but his high sense of honour induced him to decline the gift, on which they settled an annuity of £5,000 a-year on him for twenty years. It is clear that the subsidiary State surrendered its political independence in return for British protection. It included Colonel Barry Close, the prince of the Indian diplomatists of the time; Captain Malcolm, afterwards Governor of Bombay; Captain Munro, subsequently Governor of Madras; Henry Wellesley, eventually Lord Cowley, ambassador in Paris; and the Duke of Wellington; — the largest number of men of genius ever assembled at the same board in India, either before or since.
Tipu still refused to beg for peace on humiliating terms. His army remained loyal to him to the very end. The Peshwa, Baji Rao, had hitherto evaded all overtures from the English for a subsidiary treaty; but there was bitter feud between him and Holkar, whose brother he had cruelly executed, and who was now marching upon his capital. Similarly, the territories of the rulers of Tanjore and Surat were taken over and their rulers pensioned off. Sir George Barlow was then made the acting. Instead of placing Oudh in charge of the districts exposed to attack from the Marathas and invaders from the north-west, Lord Wellesley now obtained by cession the whole belt of exterior territory; and Oudh was thenceforward enveloped by the English dominion. Similarly Tipu Sultan had not forgotten the humiliation of which he was subjected by Lord Cornwallis when he was forced to give up half of his territory, paid huge war indemnity.
Thus, Peshwa entered into a subsidiary alliance system with the British. Scindia lost Jaipur, Jodhpur, Gohad, Ahamad Nagar, Bharuch, Ajanta etc. Tippoo then appears to have crept out, when a European soldier, entering the gateway, endeavoured to snatch his brilliant sword-belt. Sciendia had a powerful army which trained by Frenchman Perron. If the chiefs of these armies combined to upset the Peshwa, they might seize command of the whole Maratha Empire; and, what was still more important, their next step would probably be a combination against the English. It was in this way that he was able to add to the resources of the English Company, oust the foreigners from the Indian States and make the English Company the arbiter in the affairs of the Indian states. Most of the ruling chiefs accepted it.