So ensure you note the information source. Typically, marketing people are interested in media statistics and consumer information which has been obtained from large scale consumer or farmer panels. Information from internal sources is easily available and no financial burden is involved in gathering the information. The marketing manager may direct the salesmen to prepare periodical reports containing the information collected by them. Even apparently simple terms such as 'farm size' need careful handling. Trade associations and technical and professional groups viii.
A clear benefit of using secondary data is that much of the background work needed has already been carried out, such as or. Searches of printed secondary data should begin with a consultation of referral sources such as directories, handbooks, indexes, and the like. This research is more precise, and is used to solve a problem identified in exploratory research. Orders are received and delivered, costs are recorded, sales personnel submit visit reports, invoices are sent out, returned goods are recorded and so on. External Sources Internal Sources : i. Advertising media — daily newspapers, magazines and periodicals, radio, television, etc.
Data is available freely or at far lesser cost through secondary sources. Geographical areas may have their boundaries redefined, units of measurement and grades may change and imported goods can be reclassified from time to time for purposes of levying customs and excise duties. They are relatively cheaper; they need less efforts, time, and money. Government publication and reports ii. The most challenging part of conducting primary research is figuring out where to start. Primary Research Methodologies Surveys, interviews, observation and focus groups are the most common methods of conducting primary research. Research Methods for Public Administrators.
· Secondary sources of information can yield more accurate data than that obtained through primary research. Secondary data is the data that have been already collected by and readily available from other sources. Secondary data are those details which have been collected for the purpose other than specific research problem. A term may have different meaning for different people, example a term 'youth' used is ambiguous and one needs to find what is the assumed age taken by primary researcher. Robert W Joselyn has classified the above discussion into eight steps. Qualitative research is used for in-depth probing into inherently non-quantifiable subjects, such as attitudes and opinions that people may have about your new advertising slogan or why they prefer your competitor's frozen lasagna over yours. It is increasingly possible to obtain behavioral data from secondary sources, which can be more powerful and reliable than self-reported data via surveys and focus groups.
The most challenging part of conducting primary research is figuring out where to start. At the very least one would normally expect that they would produce a trade directory and, perhaps, a yearbook. Conducting Primary Research Avoid reinventing the wheel. How do Dillon et al. Where a serious search of secondary sources is undertaken then the marketing researcher often finds an abundance of relevant material. They can be easily collected from various internal and external sources. Tips for Collecting, Reviewing, and Analyzing Secondary Data.
In this way, the direct product profitability can be calculated. Some market research firms will create large in-depth industry reports that can be very expensive. In other cases, having a high level of accuracy is not so critical. This information is called administrative data. Publications and Reports: There are innumerable publications brought by Central and State Govts, which contain valuable data for conducting marketing research. Advertising agencies and marketing consultants iv. Records written and kept by individuals such as diaries and journals and accessed by other people are also regarded as secondary sources.
This may also involve going to the field to observe occurrences and recording the observations. Data is available on wide-ranging topics, including economic and population trends, crime, education, health care, aviation safety, energy use, and farm production. Advantages of Secondary Market Research 1 Time and Cost effective : Usually time and cost required to collect secondary data is less than efforts required to collect primary data. Sources of Secondary Data : Secondary data can be collected from various sources. Publications: Semi govt, organizations municipalities, District Boards and others also publish reports in respect of birth, death and education, sanitation and many other related fields. The search capabilities within these data sets is improving all the time. Source bias Researchers have to be aware of vested interests when they consult secondary sources.
Secondary data may be sufficient to solve the problem, or at least it helps the reader better understand the problem under study. Internal company data like customer details, sales figures, employee timecards, etc. For collecting secondary data, there is no need for employing qualified, experience, and capable research officer. The commercial organisation funds the collection of the data, which is wide ranging in its content, and hopes to make its money from selling this data to interested parties. It saves efforts and expenses. Interviews, observations and focus groups are typically used in qualitative research. The data may have been used in published texts and elsewhere, and the data could already be promoted in the media or bring in useful personal contacts.
The problem is sometimes not so much 'error' but differences in levels of accuracy required by decision makers. For instance, government statistics on a country's agriculture will help decide how to stratify a sample and, once sample estimates have been calculated, these can be used to project those estimates to the population. . They have been collected by other people for their own problems and situation in the past. They may refer only to the nucleus family or include the extended family.
If available, the services of a reference librarian or archivist may be invaluable to get what you need quickly. The main difference between the two is the source of data. The difficulty in collecting secondary data depends on its method of storage and indexing. The Competitive Edge As a small-business operator, primary research can be an excellent way to gain advantage over your competition. One major benefit of using secondary data is that it has already been reviewed by authorities and suitably used elsewhere. You may find what you're looking for and need not go any further. Organization will not get answers to their specific issues through this data directly and one needs to 'mine' further into it to get relevant information.