On the other hand, there was no clearly defined occupation for higher castes. This ideological scheme was theoretically composed of around 3,000 castes, which in turn was claimed to be composed of 90,000 local endogamous sub-groups. यज्ञवेदी This 1st varna includes , Brahmins or 'Bahuns' and or 'Dhyo Brahman' people forming the varna of the , consisting of people who were traditionally Vedic priests, scholars and educators. The system is said to have originated in India. Rishi Vashista was born to a prostitute ,while sage Vyasa, the original author of the Mahabharata, was born to a fisherwoman. Well defined code of conduct, rewards and punishments and purification procedures became necessary to regulate the inflow of new members into the Vedic society and their integration into the existing framework of castes without disturbing the social structure and the dominance of the priestly class.
Following are the important functions of Caste System in traditional India. Lord Krishna himself was brought up by a family of cowherds. At meal times, anyone could accept food from the hands of a Brahmin, but a Brahmin would be polluted if he or she took certain types of food from a lower caste person. The caste system through the Jajmani relation binds the families of various castes into a hereditary, permanent and multiple relationships. Better terms would be ethnicity, ethnic identity and ethnic group.
A similar trend is often noticeable in the work places also. The Greeks and Romans had freemen and slaves. There are never more or less than four and for over 2,000 years their order of precedence has not altered. Corbridge concludes that British policies of of India's numerous princely sovereign states, as well as enumeration of the population into rigid categories during the 10-year census, particularly with the 1901 and 1911 census, contributed towards the hardening of caste identities. The Indian political parties thrive and succeed by appealing to this base emotion of people. Islam in South Asia a short history.
That part of the wedding ritual is even preserved in Jainism. The violation of the rule of endogamy would mean ostracism and loss of caste. Hindu society has proved stable because it is family based on Caste System, which survives even conversion to Islam or Christianity. The scriptures suggested that a king should start his day by worshipping three Brahmins on waking up and follow their advice with humility and modesty. These restrictions led many untouchables to seek some degree of emancipation through conversion to , , or. They were forbidden entry to many temples, to most schools, and to wells from which higher castes drew water.
Buddhism in its practice at least was not opposed to the caste system and the two primary attributes of interlining and intermarriage between different hereditary determined sets of people in the same community are also found among the Moslems of India. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will after death sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmana. According to Havell, the infusion of Huna blood lowered the high ethical standards of Indo-Aryan traditions and caused the growth of many vulgar superstitions which were never contradicted by the great teachers of India. They are the warrior class, who are commanded by tradition to protect the people, bestow gifts to the Brahmins, offer sacrifices to gods and ancestors, study the Vedas, dispense justice, and, according to , abstain themselves from sensual pleasures. Religion and society in Arab Sind. Nepal: Growth of a Nation.
Indian social reformers The caste system has been criticised by many Indian social reformers. The texts declare that these sinful, fallen people be ostracised. In 1928, the first temple welcomed untouchables or -- 'the crushed ones' -- to worship with its upper-caste members. In the , 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs. There are four varnas but thousands of jatis.
The first three groups, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishya have parallels with other Indo-European societies, while the addition of the Shudras is probably a Brahmanical invention from northern India. This law declared everyone belonging to certain castes to be born with criminal tendencies. By the early 20th century India was on its way to independence from the British and the caste system became very controversial. Along with Brahmins and Kshatriyas, a class called gahapatis literally householders, but effectively propertied classes was also included among high kulas. Far less rigidity on inter-marriage between different sub-castes than between members of different castes in some regions, while in some endogamy within a sub-caste was the principal feature of caste-society. Caste, Class and Catholicism in India 1789—1914.
The Caste system does not demarcate racial division. At the bottom of the heap were the Shudras, who came from Brahma's feet and did all the menial jobs. Later Gandhi went on fasts in the hope of improving the condition of the Untouchables, or at least to avoid their being politically classified as non-Hindus. Many husbandmen and artisans practised a number of crafts. This custom is only prevalent in the societies of the , ,. Development of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in India.