Murray and Schaller 2012 undertook a study that confirms this effect of infectious disease on conformity. In one study, some participants were asked to consider three features of themselves that provoke uncertainty, called self-uncertainty. Finally, the time they devoted to write a persuasive message was also assessed. Many theories have been proposed to explain the prevalence of objectification. Each of us has been one day confronted to uncertainty, whereas in initial encounters, or moving to a new a new place, or beginning a new work.
His influence continues to grow after his death in 1988. To evaluate the self, the individual usually seeks the opinions of others who are similar to the self. In addition, decreases in uncertainty level will cause increases in nonverbal affiliative expressiveness. Some researchers believe that a little bit of uncertainty is actually necessary for maintaining a healthy relationship with others. This axiom holds only when we are mindful of the process of communication, we are not overly vigilant, and our anxiety and uncertainty are between our minimum and maximum thresholds. Did Deb mention she has a car for sale? European Americans, in contrast, were more likely to feel bothered or uneasy after writing an essay that provokes uncertainty about themselves, such as a time they failed a task in which they expected to succeed.
The first time we meet a stranger, we face a high level of uncertainty and we must want to reduce that uncertainty by getting more information about the other person. In this study, teams of five participants completed a task in which they communicated over computer. Characteristics of individuals that affect subjective uncertainty Hogg and Mullin 1999 argued that subjective uncertainty is primarily a function of the context, not the individual. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 355-366. The next study was similar, except participants also completed the , in which they needed to rearranged words to form sentences. Both variants of uncertainty are aversive.
But just like any other relationships, we started with meager sharing of personal experiences or views with each other. However the theory is difficult to apply to instances where a person is compelled by emotion or irrationality, which overrides conscious thought to reach an end goal during communication. There are three reasons people typically feel uncertain: anticipation of prior interaction, incentive value and deviance. Weaver was also an active member of the Rockefeller Foundation, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Alfred P. This experience is not just one of those childish things I had thought of because even until now, I still have the same mindset. First, according to Hogg, Adelman, and Blagg 2010 , religious organizations exhibit a property called entitativity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 23, 17-38.
Similarity — Similarities between people decreases uncertainty, while dissimilarities increases uncertainty. According to other scholars, if people feel threatened by a group, such as another race or gender, they like to underestimate the feelings and subjectivity of this group. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 838-852. Schaefer 2009 undertook a study to investigate these possibilities as well as several other hypotheses. Analyses showed that Significant linear and quadratic trends in the uncertainty scores. Individual and cultural influences on uncertainty reduction. What are the key events or focus points? To override these feelings of uncertainty, individuals can conform to the norms of their group.
Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Next is the incentive value, the idea that you are driven to learn more about someone when they have the potential to provide you with rewards or punishments. Conformity A sense of personal uncertainty also increases conformity. As uncertainty decline, information-seeking behavior decreases. For example, if a person makes an anti- statement, the people he or she is with are less likely to make a statement towards a stranger. The creation of uncertainty in the influence process: The roles of stimulus information and disagreement with similar others.
Western Journal of Speech Communication, 54, 66-81. . Uncertainty and extremism: Identification with high entitativity groups under conditions of uncertainty. Are you wondering what kind of car it is? Understanding the cycle of relational development is key to studying how people seek to reduce uncertainty about others. Research conducted under the title of interpersonal communication initially focused on persuasion, social influence, and small group processes.
Interestingly, however, if these participants had previously been granted an opportunity to consider their favorite food, book, city, movie, song, or hobby--a form of --this effect diminished. In 1929, Heider moved to the United States to work at Smith College and later the University of Kansas where he worked for the remainder of his life Ash, 2000. Deviance — If the person behaves oddly and shows some bizarre characteristics, you are likely to use uncertainty reduction. If participants wrote their attitude with their non-preferred hand, and thus doubted their beliefs, they devoted more effort to their attempts to persuade someone else. The role of control motivation in mortality salience effects on ingroup support and defense. Again, after individuals experienced a sense of uncertainty, they were more likely to write a longer persuasive message to reinforce their beliefs. First, either achievement or relationship motives were primed.
First, in a pilot study, participants were asked to write an essay on three characteristics or events that increase the likelihood they feel either certain or uncertain about their group or themselves. This axiom holds only when we are secure in our social identities, we are not mindful, if strangers are perceived to by typical outgroup members, and when our anxiety and uncertainty are between our minimum and maximum thresholds 2 An increase in the degree to which our personal identities guide our interactions with strangers will produce a decrease in our anxiety and an increase in our ability to predict their behavior accurately. Near each painting were, ostensibly, the ratings of other people. Paradoxically, the third need that Gudykunst points out is our need for self-concept confirmation. The influence of their work can be seen reflected in the assumptions of Berger and Calabrese 1975. Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory.