Handbook of applied psychology 2 vols. Motivation can be intrinsic consisting of internal factors within a person, such as the desire to succeed or extrinsic consisting of external factors, such as monetary incentives. Let me tell you a little story. Industrial psychology is concerned with describing job requirements and assessing individuals for their ability to meet those requirements. Psychologists on the march: Science, practice, and professional identity in America, 1929-1969. Training programs are increasingly professional in tone, perhaps following the lead of clinical psychology.
Some of these researchers had been involved in work in the area of industrial psychology before World War I. How the organization could best serve the individual became important. The overall industrial environment of this period is well documented by the Dicken's classic Hard Times or Sinclar's The Jungle. They developed the Army Alpha test to measure mental abilities. As in World War I, great emphasis was placed upon the development of tests for selecting and classifying recruits. Other organizational research focused on job enrichment, organizational withdrawal, job involvement, and the reciprocal effects of organizations and persons. Scott revolutionized standardized selection processes He became interested in the scientific application of psychology in industrial practices and common problems in business.
Weiner Editor-in-Chief , Handbook of psychology. This method of rest increased worker productivity from 12. Autocratic management was the norm. Goals of I—O Psychology Industrial-organizational psychologists look at questions surrounding workplace issues. Employee Influence There are benefits when an organization allows for employee influence. Additionally, the scientists and the practitioners in I-O psychology must work more closely if all are to survive. He remained at the university for two and a half years while teaching at country schools.
He asked to be allowed to implement his selection knowledge to elect officers scientifically; The first tests were a success and the method was used for the selection of more members of the Navy. Retrospect: Psychology as a profession. Training emphasis shifted from an academic-scientist orientation to a scientist-professional model. For example, it was discovered that rectangular figures are much more effective than square ones in obtaining customer attention. Cattell, Münsterberg, and Scott had been students of Wilhelm Wundt, the father of experimental psychology. The Hawthorne-effect concept endures today as an important experimental consideration in many fields and a factor that has to be controlled for in an experiment. The student should identify organizations that are dedicated to accomplishing specific tasks, in the general sense.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 4 , 467-477. The division's name was changed in 1962 to the Industrial Psychology Division. They are the first books to describe the use of psychology in the business world. It focuses on measuring and analysis. Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach.
Scott was not motivated to discover whether innate influences outweighed environmental factors. The civil rights movement had begun in the 1950s when the separate-but-equal doctrine in education was struck down in the case of Brown v. Validation and test fairness became essential considerations, with I-O psychologists having to defend tests in the face of antidiscrimination laws. This resurrection is due to improved measurement of the predictor constructs and better selection of criteria. This was a great influence for Scott in his future work.
He later turned from analyzing the psychological elements and effects of advertising to investigation of successful salesmanship. Lewin was also responsible for coining the term group dynamics, and he was involved in studies of group interactions, cooperation, competition, and communication that bear on organizational psychology. This project moved psychologists toward realizing the importance of matching individuals with job requirements. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 459-466. Individuals who telecommute most of the work week are more satisfied with their jobs than are traditional employees who commute to a physical office location. This method of rest increased worker productivity from 12.
The Hawthorne studies I referenced earlier are often credited as being the trigger point for this, but Hawthorne better serves as an example of this shift rather than the cause. These studies also examined how human interaction factors, such as supervisorial style, enhanced or decreased productivity. Moore in 1921 and was instrumental in preparing several applied psychologists, especially women. Motivation factors include achievement, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Also controversial was the underlying concept that only a manager could determine the most efficient method of working, and that while at work, a worker was incapable of this. Because of his father's poor health, Walter, his older brother, John, and their three sisters, Mary Louise, Retta, and Myrtle, did much of the work around their farm.