However, there are courses belonging to fields of architecture, law and medicine whose duration is 5 years. At the all-India level, the Gross Intake Rate in 1997-98 was 116 per cent compared to the Net Intake Rate of 68 per cent. Although the growth rates declined, these low growth rates of upper primary schools are still substantially higher than the corresponding growth rates in primary schools. But there are several schools, which had more than even 10 rooms. Further, it may also be noticed that barring northeastern states, most of the teachers both at the primary and upper primary levels of education are trained.
Except the northeastern part of the country, majority of teachers are trained. The rest of the literates have completed other higher levels of education. Of this, about 5 per cent were in the public sector. Among the major states, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu had more than 50 per cent of their population below poverty line in 1983. This has created more challenges for the children and their quality of education.
The choice of domain subjects also exists for the students to decide their future field of specialisation on their opting for higher level of studies. It may however be noted that data on learner's achievement is not available on regular basis. Index for social equity for Scheduled Caste children is more than 100 in all the phase one districts. However, the learner's achievement across the country remained unsatisfactory and far below than the expectations. There are varying patterns so far as the management and coordination of the programme at the state level is concerned. The study covered 66,831 students, 6,221 teachers and 2,068 schools spread over 42 districts across the seven states. The local bodies seldom exert themselves for proper assessment and collection of education cess and never take initiative to augment the resources by other means.
Since then a number of districts have become total literate districts. India's elementary education was portrayed by historical inequalities at the time of independence. There should be ample scope for promotion and for having retirement benefits pension, provident fund and gratuity. India has made huge progress in one of the areas above, having reduced the number of out-of-school children from 20 million in 2002 to four million in 2008—09. It is a sad commentary on our social system that the desired targets have not yet been published.
You may have read many stories in newspaper. The demand is more likely to be in the educationally disadvantage areas where primary education has not been fully expanded. Despite all the impressive achievements there may still be a few habitations that may not have access to primary and upper primary schooling facilities within the specified norms. Out of every 100 elementary school student 52 were boys and 48 girls. The comparatively low participation of girls suggest that unless the primary system is improved to a significant effect, the goal of universal enrolment may not be realized in the near future. This is especially true in the cases of the poorest and most backward classes.
The alternative and innovative programme envisages opening alternative elementary centres in all these habitations. But in practice, divergent models are in existence across states. But the immediate solution to overcome this difficulty is to provide: 2 Part-Time Education: Part-time education should be introduced so that children can work as well as learn. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka also succeeded in significantly reducing the incidence of poverty. Innovative Projects and Programmes I.
Of the estimated population of 205 million in the age group of 6-14 years on March 1, 2002, nearly 82. Generally, private unrecognized educational institutions that are large in number are not included in the official collection of statistics. Wastage is appalling in case of girls. This can be known if transition from primary to upper primary level is analyzed which is presented below. Teacher is the most important actor of the education system through whom only all the interventions are expected to reflect in the classroom transactions. At the elementary level, it was as high as 77 per cent in Bihar, 68 per cent in Orissa, 53 per cent in Uttar Pradesh and 74 per cent in West Bengal.
On the other hand a few states, namely Goa, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal etc. The scheme is recently revised and named as Scheme of Alternative and Innovative Education. Despite the significant achievements still a large number of teachers' positions in a number of states are lying vacant mostly because of the court cases. The estimates of enrolments and attendance give reasonably sound reasons to believe that stipulated targets may not be achieved in the near future. The Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development is the official agency that is responsible for collection and dissemination of educational data on annual basis. But there is an inherent contradiction between quantity and quality, and education is not an exception to this rule.
If we look back at the history and development of elementary education in India, government took the responsibilities of the new innovation and strategies that are being applied to the elementary stage education. At primary level, Dadra and Nagar Haveli registers highest percentage 153. Similarly, upper primary teachers during the same period increased from 86 thousand to 1,278 thousand. In rest of the states, an increasing trend in transition rates is generally noticed both in case of boys and girls. The compound growth rates in number of upper primary schools reveal that in the initial period 1955-56 to 1960-61 the growth rate was as high as 18. Details of women mobilisation and programme agendas and role of the National Resource Group of Mahila Samakhya are provided.